Hoffer’s original double blinds introducing nutritional psychiatry
Dr. Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD, introduced double blinds to psychiatric research with his early niacin studies in the sixties. But, as a physician pledged to do no harm, he eventually decided not to deprive controls (patients) of treatments which he had observed to work, so as not to place them at risk of permanent deterioration, or death.
Walsh/Pfeiffer biotype outcome studies and biochemical assessments
Virtually all the 20,000 schizophrenics treated under the auspices of Dr. Carl C. Pfeiffer, MD, PhD, in New Jersey, and the additional 20,000 under Dr. William J. Walsh, PhD, in Illinois, were given a battery of biochemical tests when first seen, and then additional testing to track progress. Walsh reports at least 90 separate tests for most patients, measuring nutrient levels, biotype, allergic reactivity, and other pertinent biochemical parameters.
As stated in my March 3rd post on outcome (below), approximately 85% of their 40,000 patients achieved great improvement or recovery within several years. Clinical improvement corresponded with the normalizing of key biochemical parameters, as measured by these tests.
Subset with ABA experimental design pattern
Among such patients were a significant number who at some point decided they were well, stopped taking nutrients, and deteriorated; later resumed the nutrient protocol, and got better again; providing an ABA (on-off-on) experimental design in which patients incidentally served as their own controls.