Overmethylation increases activity of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, creating overstimulation and histapenia symptoms (e.g., anxiety, voices, hypomania, paranoia...). Methylation does this by decreasing expression of transporters that remove these neurotransmitters from the synapse. For example, methylation decreases the creation of dopamine transporters, leaving more dopamine in the synapse, thereby increasing dopamine messages.
Dr. Walsh suggests that the niacin therapy, developed by Dr Hoffer, turned out to be so important because it increases reuptake of dopamine from the synapse.
Similarly, folic acid helps the histapenic by increasing acetylation enzymes, and fostering creation of transporters to bring dopamine and norepinephrine out of the synapse, so stimulation can subside.
Metal MetabolismHistapenia alone is generally associated with anxiety, panic and hyperactivity. Add metal metabolism dysfunction, and you can get voices, psychosis and paranoia.
Copper elevation is a good indicator of poor metal metabolism, and prevalent in schizophrenics with histapenia. Copper itself worsens voices, paranoia, overstimulation, insomnia and hypomania.
Reminder: This information is presented for educational purposes only, and is not intended as diagnosis or treatment recommendations for the individual. Even within the histapenic subgroup, everyone's biochemical requirements are unique. So if you need treatment for schizophrenia, bipolar, or any other medical condition, please consult a knowledgeable physician.
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More on Histapenia nutrients next post.